But to lay down which of them it is lies beyond the range of our stumbling progress. This manuscript was likely copied after O, sometime in the mid-ninth century. Jahrhundert v. Chr. Lucretius attempts to allow for free will in his physicalistic universe by postulating an indeterministic tendency for atoms to veer randomly (Latin: clinamen, literally "the turning aside of a thing", but often translated as "the swerve"). [29], De rerum natura does not argue that the soul does not exist; rather, the poem claims that the soul, like all things in existence, is made up of atoms, and because these atoms will one day drift apart, the human soul is not immortal. In seinem Werk „de rerum natura“ entwickelt Lukrez eine Theorie, welche im Wesentlichen darauf basiert, den wahrnehmbaren Dingen kleinste Atome zuzuschreiben (Z. Inhalt: Alle Dinge im Universum sind aus Atomen zusammengesetzt, woraus sich Erklärungen für … De rerum natura (Latin: [deːˈreːrʊ̃n.naːˈtuːraː]; On the Nature of Things) is a first-century BC didactic poem by the Roman poet and philosopher Lucretius (c. 99 BC – c. 55 BC) with the goal of explaining Epicurean philosophy to a Roman audience. Full search [10] The German classicists Ivo Bruns and Samuel Brandt set forth an alternative theory that Lucretius did at first write the poem with Memmius in mind, but that his enthusiasm for his patron cooled over time. Lukrez: Von der Natur der Dinge, 1. [97], In 2011, the historian and literary scholar Stephen Greenblatt wrote a popular history book about the poem, entitled The Swerve: How the World Became Modern. However, Memmius' name is central to several critical verses in the poem, and this theory has therefore been largely discredited. In the work, Greenblatt argues that Poggio Bracciolini's discovery of De rerum natura reintroduced important ideas that sparked the modern age. Nevertheless, Lucretius writes as a complete Epicurean,offering his reader not just cosmological understanding but the fullrecipe for happiness. If the latter is true, Lucretius, notes, this is because: "either swift currents of ether whirl round and round and roll their fires at large across the nocturnal regions of the sky"; "an external current of air from some other quarter may whirl them along in their course"; or "they may swim of their own accord, each responsive to the call of its own food, and feed their fiery bodies in the broad pastures of the sky". Following this, the poet argues that the universe comprises an infinite number of Atoms, which are scattered about in an infinite and vast void (Inane). stammendes Lehrgedicht des römischen Dichters, Philosophen und Epikureers Titus Lucretius Carus, genannt Lukrez. "[89], After Lactantius's time, Lucretius was almost exclusively referenced or alluded to in a negative manner by the Church Fathers. The one major exception to this was Isidore of Seville, who at the start of the 7th century produced a work on astronomy and natural history dedicated to the Visigothic king Sisebut that was entitled De natura rerum. "Prolegomena". The title of Lucretius’s work translates that of the chief work of Epicurus, Peri physeōs (On Nature). voluntas). Buch (deutsche Übersetzung v. K.L.v.Knebel) Titus Lucretius Carus. De rerum natura (Titus Lucretius Carus) E Wikisource. [3], The fourth book is devoted to the theory of the senses, sight, hearing, taste, smell, of sleep and of dreams, ending with a disquisition upon love and sex. [43] In c. AD 380, St. Jerome would contend in his Chronicon that Cicero amended and edited De rerum natura,[44] although most scholars argue that this is an erroneous claim;[45] the classicist David Butterfield argues that this mistake was likely made by Jerome (or his sources) because the earliest reference to Lucretius is in the aforementioned letter from Cicero. [52][53] Scholars consider manuscripts O, Q, and S to all be descendants of the original archetype, which they dub Ω. An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. [57] Rather, all the remaining Lucretian manuscripts that are currently extant date from or after the fifteenth century. Berlin 1957, S. 168.: 5. Additionally, although only published in 1996, Lucy Hutchinson's translation of De rerum natura was in all likelihood the first in English and was most likely completed some time in the late 1640s or 1650s. De Rerum Natura. [9] There are over a dozen references to "Memmius" scattered throughout the long poem in a variety of contexts in translation, such as "Memmius mine", "my Memmius", and "illustrious Memmius". According to Lucretius's frequent statements in his poem, the main purpose of the work was to free Gaius Memmius's mind of the supernatural and the fear of death—and to induct him into a state of ataraxia by expounding the philosophical system of Epicurus, whom Lucretius glorifies as the hero of his epic poem. De rerum natura (deutsch Über die Natur der Dinge oder Vom Wesen des Weltalls) ist ein aus dem 1. 9.1", "denarius"). This copy has been dated to the early ninth century and was produced by a Carolingian scriptorium (likely a monastery connected to the court of Charlemagne). Die Kernstelle ist auf jeden Fall Lukrez (Titus Lucretius Carus), De rerum natura (Über die Natur der Dinge) 2, 112 – 141. He was unable to tell his readers how to determine which of these alternatives might be the true one. To prove that neither the mind nor spirit can survive independent of the body, Lucretius uses a simple analogy: when a vessel shatters, its contents spill everywhere; likewise, when the body dies, the mind and spirit dissipate. Das Ziel seiner Theorie ist die Entmystifizierung von Naturphänomenen. These phenomena are the result of regular, but purposeless motions and interactions of tiny atoms in empty space. Commentary references to this page [3], In the third book, the general concepts proposed thus far are applied to demonstrate that the vital and intellectual principles, the Anima and Animus, are as much a part of us as are our limbs and members, but like those limbs and members have no distinct and independent existence, and that hence soul and body live and perish together; the book concludes by arguing that the fear of death is a folly, as death merely extinguishes all feeling—both the good and the bad. Lukrez Herkunft und soziale Stellung sind nicht gesichert; Vermutungen, die von seinem Cognomen Carus auf eine niedrige Herkunft schließen, sind ebenso wenig zu belegen wie die Annahme, Lukrez habe der Nobilität angehört. quae quoniam rerum naturam sola gubernas nec sine te quicquam dias in luminis oras exoritur neque fit laetum neque amabile quicquam, te sociam studeo scribendis versibus esse, quos ego de rerum natura pangere conor 25 Memmiadae nostro, quem tu, dea, tempore in … Ergo hominum genus in cassum frustraque laborat semper et in curis consumit inanibus aevom, ni mirum quia non cognovit quae sit habendi finis et omnino quoad crescat vera voluptas; idque minutatim vitam provexit in altum et belli magnos commovit funditus aestus. On the Nature of Things, long poem written in Latin as De rerum natura by Lucretius that sets forth the physical theory of the Greek philosopher Epicurus. Lucretius's De rerum natura. In seinem Werk „de rerum natura“ versucht er im Gewand der Dichtung dem römischen Volk die Lehre des Epikurs nahe zu bringen. [1] Additionally, in his essay "Of Books", he lists Lucretius along with Virgil, Horace, and Catullus as his four top poets. Rom Der lateinische Autor Lukrez und sein grandioses Weltgedicht: „De rerum natura“ erklärt die Natur und die Schönheit des Lebens, doch auch die … The entire proem is also written in the format of a hymn, recalling other early literary works, texts, and hymns and in particular the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. "[46] However, Kleve contends that four of the six books are represented in the fragments, which he argues is reason to assume that the entire poem was at one time kept in the library. [41], Martin Ferguson Smith notes that Cicero's close friend, Titus Pomponius Atticus, was an Epicurean publisher, and it is possible his slaves made the very first copies of De rerum natura. This work is licensed under a De rerum natura Titel entspricht dem griechischen "P e r i j u s e w V "; - natürlich auch hier: Zerstörung des Mythos und aller unerklärbarer, - Mechanik) und nicht … [98][99][100] The book was well-received, and later earned the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction and the 2011 National Book Award for Nonfiction. The universe described in the poem operates according to these physical principles, guided by fortuna ("chance"),[2] and not the divine intervention of the traditional Roman deities. [59][60] This proves that the work was known in select circles long before the official rediscovery by Poggio. [66] This has led scholars like Katharina Volk to argue that "Manilius is a veritable anti-Lucretius". Determinism appears to conflict with the concept of free will. Die vielen textkritisch umstrittenen Stellen des Gedichts werden eingehend geprüft; konkurrierende Deutungen und Konjekturen kritisch bewertet; neue Lösungen für … Your current position in the text is marked in blue. [5] In response, many scholars argue that the poet uses Venus poetically as a metonym. This meant that humans had nothing to fear from them. Werk: philosophisches Lehrgedicht De rerum natura erstes bedeutendes und vollständig erhaltenes Lehrgedicht der römischen Antike einem Dichtermäzen namens C. Memmius gewidmet Lukrez-Über die Natur der Dinge (De rerum natura) (55 v. Das Lehrgedicht „De rerum natura“ Mit seinem Lehrgedicht „De rerum natura“ stellte sich Lukrez in eine Reihe mit den berühmten griechischen Vorgängern wie Hesiod. „DE RERUM NATURA” ... Aus den Dingen selbst, aus ihrer Beschaffenheit, erklärt Lukrez die Phänomene, die, zusammengenommen, unsere Welt ergeben. Im Bereich der lateinischen Sprache ist Lukrez dagegen der erste, der im epischen Versmaß des Hexameters einen „Sach- zusammenhang“ (Reclam, S. 617) beschreibt. contemplator enim, cum solis lumina cumque inserti fundunt radii per opaca domorum: [50] Today, Q is also housed at Leiden University. Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License. For the documentary television series, see, Lucretius was quoted by several early Christian writers, including, List of English translations of De rerum natura, "Hortus Apertus – La fortuna – Dante e Lucrezio", "Gian Francesco Poggio Bracciolini" (2013), "The 2012 Pulitzer Prize Winners: General Nonfiction", "2011 National Book Award Winner, Nonfiction", "An Unearthed Treasure That Changed Things", "The Answer Man: An Ancient Poem Was Rediscovered—and the World Swerved", "Book review: 'The Swerve: How the World Became Modern, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=De_rerum_natura&oldid=993308149, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Articles with Latin-language sources (la), Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 9 December 2020, at 23:10. DE RERVM NATVRA LIBRI SEX. (3). [13][14], There is a certain irony to the poem, namely that while Lucretius extols the virtue of the Epicurean school of thought, Epicurus himself had advised his acolytes from penning poetry because he believed it to make that which was simple overly complicated. Über die Natur der Dinge: (De rerum natura) | Lukrez | ISBN: 9783843065689 | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf duch Amazon. [28][29] She qualifies her use of this term, cautioning that it is not to be used to say that Lucretius was himself an atheist in the modern sense of the word, nor that atheism is a teleological necessity, but rather that many of his ideas were taken up by 19th, 20th, and 21st century atheists. The manuscript that Poggio discovered did not survive, but a copy (the "Codex Laurentianus 35.30") of it by Poggio's friend, Niccolò de' Niccoli, did, and today it is kept at the Laurentian Library in Florence. An XML version of this text is available for download, "[16][17] (Of note, Lucretius repeats these 25 lines, almost verbatim, in the introduction to the fourth book. )[92], Montaigne owned a Latin edition published in Paris, in 1563, by Denis Lambin which he heavily annotated. He argues against fear of such deities by demonstrating, through observations and arguments, that the operations of the world can be accounted for in terms of natural phenomena. Ein unendlich freier Gesang von Lukrez am 12. Buch - deutsch : 1. [62][63], It is also believed that the Roman poet Virgil referenced Lucretius and his work in the second book of his Georgics when he wrote: "Happy is he who has discovered the causes of things and has cast beneath his feet all fears, unavoidable fate, and the din of the devouring Underworld" (felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas/atque metus omnis et inexorabile fatum/subiecit pedibus strepitumque Acherontis avari). The shape of these atoms, their properties, their movements, the laws under which they enter into combination and assume forms and qualities appreciable by the senses, with other preliminary matters on their nature and affections, together with a refutation of objections and opposing hypotheses, occupy the first two books. [54] However, while O is a direct descendant of the archetype,[54] Q and S are believed to have both been derived from a manuscript (Ψ) that in turn had been derived from a damaged and modified version of the archetype (ΩI). Lateinische Lehrbücher I-VI. But if they were not in the habit of swerving, they would all fall straight down through the depths of the void, like drops of rain, and no collision would occur, nor would any blow be produced among the atoms. Perseus provides credit for all accepted Zumindest deutet sein W… He likens the physical body to a vessel that holds both the mind (mens) and spirit (anima). (3): Cross-references in general dictionaries to this page [1], Machiavelli made a copy early in his life. sion that the De Rerum Natura, even in iu most scientific discussions, is Itill poetry. Click anywhere in the [66] What is more, Manilius also seems to suggest throughout this poem that his work is superior to that of Lucretius's. [68] (Coincidentally, De rerum natura and the Astronomica were both rediscovered by Poggio Bracciolini in the early 15th century. Umfassender Kommentar von Cyril Bailey), Oxford University Press 1947. options are on the right side and top of the page. [66] However, Manilius's poem, espouses a Stoic, deterministic understanding of the universe,[67] and by its very nature attacks the very philosophical underpinnings of Lucretius's worldview. This wrath was supposed to be displayed by the misfortunes inflicted in this life and by the everlasting tortures that were the lot of the guilty in a future state (or, where these feelings were not strongly developed, from a vague dread of gloom and misery after death). According to the Epicurean canon, the fear of death must also becountered, and the rational management of pleasures a… line to jump to another position: Click on a word to bring up parses, dictionary entries, and frequency statistics. Die Annäherung der Künstler erfolgte über ausgewählte Textstellen, die zu einer bildlichen Darstellung animierten. [22], After the poem was rediscovered and made its rounds across Europe and beyond, numerous thinkers began to see Lucretius's Epicureanism as a "threat synonymous with atheism. "[5], Lucretius maintained that he could free humankind from fear of the deities by demonstrating that all things occur by natural causes without any intervention by the deities. [46], Copies of the poem were preserved in a number of medieval libraries, with the earliest extant manuscripts dating to the ninth century. [1][38] According to Lucretius, this unpredictable swerve occurs at no fixed place or time: When atoms move straight down through the void by their own weight, they deflect a bit in space at a quite uncertain time and in uncertain places, just enough that you could say that their motion has changed. [90][91] (About a century later, the British historian and Doctor of the Church Bede produced a work also called De natura rerum, partly based on Isidore's work but apparently ignorant of Lucretius's poem. Poetry, on the other hand, is like honey, in that it is a "a sweetener that sugarcoats the bitter medicine of Epicurean philosophy and entices the audience to swallow it. Jump to navigation Jump to search Lucretius's task was to clearly state and fully develop these views in an attractive form; his work was an attempt to show through poetry that everything in nature can be explained by natural laws, without the need for the intervention of divine beings. I have translated from my own text published in the Bibliotheca Oxoniensi. [86][87], Because Lucretius was critical of religion and the claim of an immortal soul, his poem was disparaged by most early Church Fathers. Der Menschheit wurde damit sowohl ein strahlendes Stück Poesie als auch ein Zeugnis davon erhalten, zu welchen geistigen Höhenflügen griechische Philosophen und Wissenschaftler lange vor … in 1898, but in the-I fear-numerous places, where I have since altered my opinion, I have taken what I now believeto be the right reading To the Greek philosopher Epicurus, the unhappiness and degradation of humans arose largely from the dread which they entertained of the power of the deities, from terror of their wrath. [4][5] By recalling the opening to poems by Homer, Ennius, and Hesiod (all of which begin with an invocation to the Muses), the proem to De rerum natura conforms to epic convention. [5][64][65] According to David Sedley of the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "With these admiring words, Virgil neatly encapsulates four dominant themes of the poem—universal causal explanation, leading to elimination of the threats the world seems to pose, a vindication of free will, and disproof of the soul's survival after death. stammendes Lehrgedicht des römischen Dichters, Philosophen und Epikureers Titus Lucretius Carus, genannt Lukrez. [5] Given that Lucretius goes on to argue that the gods are removed from human life, many have thus seen this opening to be contradictory: how can Lucretius pray to Venus and then deny that the gods listen to or care about human affairs? "[37] His naturalistic explanations were meant to bolster the ethical and philosophical ideas of Epicureanism, not to reveal true explanations of the physical world.[36]. Lucretius thus argues that death is simply annihilation, and that there is no afterlife. Der kritische Kommentar rechtfertigt den Text der Neuausgabe des Lukrez in der Bibliotheca Teubneriana. Lucretius then dedicates time to exploring the axiom that nothing can be produced from nothing, and that nothing can be reduced to nothing (Nil fieri ex nihilo, in nihilum nil posse reverti). ("Agamemnon", "Hom. [27] The historian Ada Palmer has labelled six ideas in Lucretius's thought (viz.